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Messages - Maxy

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Any idea why a two-berth sleeper is 392 UAH compared to 592 for the later train? Is it just a question of distance?
It's not about distance in this case, since it's almost the same (with 107 it is 526 km, while with 13 it's 553 km), and not about train category (both seems to be "Night Fast"),
but probably about UZ "brandedness" divide of trains or even separate cars,
separate cars.
meaning that ticket for a newer (or just in better shape) car would be sold with a higher coefficient to the base price. Sometimes it's very funny when within one and the same train you might take one and the same car category, but actually pay a different price, because one of those cars will have higher coefficient
worth to add - shabbiness or oppositely better shape (or newness) of car is only create possibility for price multiplier, but not the obligation. I.e. when car is brand new - railway administration MAY set higher price, but also may ignore this possibility (i.e. they may "forget" this car is new and sell it at basic price) or use this possiblity partially - set multiplier which is higher than 1 but lower than maximal allowed value for car of such newness.

Railway administration never explain why they use maximal allowed multiplier in one case and don't use it in other, but it's very easy to guess when you observe it during long time  - they obviously rank passengers by relative possibility to pay more.
Kyiv-bound passengers are obviously threaten more solvent, than Odessa-bound, so even in case of hypothetical equal quality of cars - Odessa bound train obviously could cost less than Kyiv-bound. But in this case Odessa-bound train is really also have worse and older cars.

(beneath the Soviet mosaic or whatever that is)
it's not possible to see those mosaics anymore. According to laws introduced in 2015 - those mosaics on Chop station was classified as contained outlawed communist symbols, so they were hidden. All what you can see instead of them - simply walls painted in yellow.

Chop is just the junction station in the middle of nowhere. If you'd like to walk abit - you may choose not to wait in Chop, but reach Uzhhorod. 
There is local train Chop 19:01 - Uzhhorod 19:33, you can take it and wait your train in Uzhhorod.

Please note, 20:35 and 20:56 train take different way from Chop to Uzhhorod.
20:35 - start in Uzhhord, then via Chop and Mukachevo - goes to Lviv the southern way (crosses Carpathian Mountains via Volovets pass).
20:56 - start in Solotvyno, then via Chop and Uzhhorod - goes to Lviv the northern way (crosses Carpathian Mountains via Uzhok pass)
i.e. 20:35 train leave Uzhhorod before Chop, while 20:56 - have stop in Uzhorod after Chop.
If you choose 2nd train - it depart from Uzhhorod at 21:39, so you'll have more than hour in Uzhhorod. Unfortunately city center in Uzhhorod is far from train station.

I am still not sure which train I will connect to: either the 20:35 or 20:56. Any preferences?
Car with 2-bed compartment is newer in train at 20:56
Train at 20:35 also have one car with 2-bed compartments btw, but it's quicker sold-out, so if you take seat availability to random date - it's higher chance you cannot see them.

Train fares and tariffs / Re: MAV ticket
« on: April 23, 2018, 08:50:25 am »
Normally the purchase period for this through car is 30 days in direction from Ukraine.
But for period of 18-25 May this through car will temporary out of operation due to construction works related with switching tracks to new Beskyd tunnel.

also keep in mind - most scenic section of the way - is crossing Alps.

If you go via Paris and Thello - you miss it.
If you go by overnight train from Munich and Rome - you miss it
If you go via Basel-Domodossola - in general you'll go via Alps whole Swiss section of your way, but the most significant mountain ridge on your way you overcome by 20 km Simplon tunnel, i.e. train doesn't really climb up.
But on other hand - with spartageskarte you may choose any itinerary via Switzerland (with any detour, including Bernina pass or whatever you like).
And only if you via Innsbruck - Bologna during daytime - you cross mountains "honestly" via Brenner pass, climbing to 1374 meters. That's quite serious argument for choosing this option.

Welcome to reality.
There is no possiblity to cover your travel by single ticket. You must find optimal combination of tickets by your own and buy them from different sources.

It's shame to admit, but National Railways of each contry in Europe consider the necessary to maintain the possibility to sell direct tickets and provide support to wishers to travel with changew only to the nearest and medium-distant other countires, while support same possiblities to countries which are "too remote" is considered as "unimportant" and "not worth the efforts".

And Italy and Netherland - is one of those cases, when each railway threat other as "too remote" and suggest "normal people anyway don't travel so far by train".

Railway tariff which allow to cover whole way - simply doesn't exist.

Amsterdam to Naples - are really abit far from each other, distance between them is longer, than most people find acceptable to overcome by train.

It's not possible to cover this distance neither by direct overnight train (i.e. during evening-night-morning) nor by combination of daytime services (i.e. by start in early morning and finish before midnight).
You need at last 19 hours to overcome this distance and combine overnight train and daytime services.

You may travel by different ways (with different detours to West or to East) and night section can be placed on different parts of your travel (closer to Amsterdam, closer to Naples or wherever in the middle).
Basically you may choose between following 4 overnight sections. Also in each case I'll provide minimal price in case of single accomodtaion of early purchase (first minute price)/full price (price before departure), and by italics - minimal price of supplying daytime sections in 2nd class and place to buy

Nightjet Duesseldof to Innsbruck 129/199 EUR without shower (only sink in compartment), -/219 EUR with private shower.
ICE Amsterdam - Duesseldorf 19,9 EUR (buy at
EC Innsbruck - Bologna from 24 EUR (but at
Bologna - Napoli alternatives:
Trenitalia from 35.9 EUR by high-speed train or from 9.9 EUR IC
or .italo Bologna - Naples high-speed train from 24.9 EUR

2. thello Paris - Milano
115/290 EUR with shower (it's temporary promo wich will last till midlle of may action, when you got cabin with shower on price of cabin without shower, that's the reason of such ratio, normally 115 is first minute price of cabin without shower, but not of a cabin with shower)
Thalys Amsterdam - Paris, 35 EUR
Milano - Naples alternatives
Trenitalia (39.9 high-speed or doable by intercities by 9.9*2 EUR) or .italo hispeed from 38.9 EUR

3.nightjet Munich - Rome
129/199 EUR without shower, -/219 EUR with private shower. Amsterdam - Munich, travel with changes (usually 1 change in Franfkurt is enough), from 49,9 EUR.
Rome - Naples alternatives
IC from 9,9 EUR
high speed trains from  16,9 EUR
local trains - fixed price 12.3 EUR available even before departure
or .italo - high speed trains from 9.9 EUR

4. trenitalia Alessandria - Naples -/202,8 EUR, only option without showers in this train

ICE Amsterdam - Basel from 39.9 EUR, buy from
Basel - Domodossola from 23 CHF(spartageskarte from
local trains Domodossola - Novarra -Allessandria 10.65 EUR, buy locally.

I followed the link to find the routes for 1 Euro.  Because we are traveling in May, I'm unable to pull up that date.
1. But you can simply play - choose the travel date which is the lattest date to which tickets are commenced for sale on day when you are playing (for example today - 1 EUR tickets are awailable to dates till 4th April) and ensure you see this avaialability, then play a little (try to put ticket to basket, ensure you can follow all needed steps till entering data of your credit card and so on) Simply do this excersice for ensuring you'll be able to buy it from first attempt when they'll be commenced for sale for actual day of your travel.
I'm curious, what is this website/business, company?
This 1 EUR tickets are proposed for all TERs (TER is regional train of French Railways)
Why do they offer this rate for a few routes?
it's proposed for all routes within former Languedoc-Rousillon region.
In fact I think it was invention of former Languedoc-Rousillon regional authorities. They find "unfair" the situation when travellers on long-distance train may get benefits from early booking, while travellers on local trains don't have similar proposal. They cannot force French Railways to introduce such proposal for local trains, but they decided to emulate is by dumb subsidizing. That the way how they understand kinda"restored the justice" but only within their region. AFAIK - the difference between French Railways price and this 1 EUR you pay - is paid by regional authorities of Languedoc-Rousillon to railway.
The must comical thing - Languedoc-Rousillon region during last reform of administrative divisiton in France was abolished (merged with the nerby regions to new bigger Occitane region). Authourities of new Occitane region - retaken and continue to support this fancy 1 EUR ticket invention. But they do it only those parts of Occitane, which is former Languedoc-Rousillon. They do not spread out this 1 EUR invention to those part of Occitane which didn't belonged to Languedoc-Rousillon.

2. For easier understanding - start learning about transport unions from Austria, because Austrian transport uniouns are the easiest for understanding, because their boundaries correspond the boundaries of States (Länder) of Austria, and the borders of Austrian Länder are often very geographical and natural.

Boundaries of transport Union cover all corresponding state(s) and often few kilometers outside, i.e. covering neighbour piece of neighbour states (or even other countries).
So. If you travel between cities in different States - the transport union tariff is applied instead of railway tariff.

Here is example

There is such very picturesque small place, often visited by tourst, named Hallstatt in Austria. It's located in Upper Austria Region. Distance from Hallstadt to closest 2 bigger cities - Salzburg and Linz - is nearly the same - 138 km from Hallstatt to Salzburg or 132 km from Linz to Hallstatt.
But Linz - Hallstadt is travel within same State (Upper Austria), so tariff of transport union applies. Ticket cost 18.80 EUR no difference, you buy in advance of before deparute. Valid for any train. Ticket is intermodal (it's not only from train, it covers urban transport in city of departure and city of arrival too, for example it's valid in Salzburg from bus or trolley-bus from train station to city center or wherever).
While Hallstadt - Salzburg - is travel between different States, so tariffs of tranport unions is not applicable, but the railway tarriff applies - normal price (price before departure) is 28.7 EUR (valid for any trains), but if you buy in advance - there is first-minute deals - non-refundable tickets with price from 9 EUR (but only for specific train, you choose which train in moment of purchase and no way to use it in train with other hour of departure), subject of limited availability. It's ticket only for trains, don't cover urban transport.

Is there some tricks to get possibility to unlock first minute deals of railway tariff is you travel within single transport union? (for example if you agree to get non refundable ticket binded to special train but prefer to pay less).
Answer is - yes. For this - you must artificially "extend" the needed route in your ticket to go beyond single transport union. For example instead of Linz - Hallstatt - try to search Amstetten NÖ - Hallstadt (Amstetten NÖ - it's closest station before Linz which is already in other State) - and you'll see 9 EUR first minute deals unlocked.

Is there way utilize transport union tariff if you hadn't managed to buy your ticket in advance and buying before departure, but traveling between cities in different States? Well, sometime it is, if you travel not very far, between neighbouring transport unions. But it's not easy and work not so well. For example from Hallstatt to Salzburg. For this - find the place where transport unions overlap. For example - here is the transport union of Upper Austria State
here is transport union of Salzburg State
you need to juxtapose those maps and deduce the area where they overlap and what is name of station on railway line from Hallstatt to Salzburg within this area of overlapping. I undestand it's hard to do from 1st attempt, so let me do this time it for you. This place is Straßwalchen.

After this - go to Austrian railways website and check prices Hallstatt - Straßwalchen (17.1 EUR) and Straßwalchen - Salzburg (6.8 EUR). So you see - you may pay 17.1+6.8 EUR instead of 28.7 if you buy in advance if you know magic word Straßwalchen, which I've explained how to deduce. But minor inconvenience - exiting from train and boarding again at Straßwalchen is not mandatory, but you shouldn't use the train which goest via Straßwalchen without stop.

5. For example you need to travel from Stuttgart to Munich, you know you definitely you will travel in some particular day, but due to some circumstances you know you cannot commit to particular time. So normal first-minute ticket (Sparpries) will not suite you, because it will be valid only for departure hour choosen during purchase.
So from 1st look all is quite sad - Normal Price (price before deparute) is quite high - 55-59 EUR. For those who travel solely by regional train - there is special proposals (pass for 1 day for regional trains) available before departure - 44 EUR in working days and 42 EUR in Weekend. But is there way to pay less, if you buy in advance without being commited to paricular train?
Yes, it is.
You buy ticket in advance for train combination - only regional trains from Stuttgart and Munich and EC or RJ train from Munich to Rosenheim (in fact - any next stop of long distance train after Munich could work instead of Rosenheim). Better choose on of lattest train of the day as mandatory train between Munich and Rosenheim. If you buy in advance - price 19,99 EUR will be avialable. And bingo - you got ticket which is vaild for travel of any regional trains during this day from Stuttgart to Munich and bind to specific train for Munich to Rosenheim. But for you it works like full flexibility because you don't need to go to Rosenheim at all.

I afraid there is not much information about transport unions in English. The good article to begin is this wikipedia article
but it's only in German (because transport unions are most common in Germany, Austria, Switzerland).

First minute tickets it's simply limited quantity of tickets with price significantly lower than normal price (price before departure).

In most cases, in most of Western Europe, is it accurate
that short distance or slower trains do not require early
purchase but long distance trains do?
yes. It's good formulation of empyrical rule.
Most typical scenario that first-minute deals usually exist only for long-distance trains (and in most cases imply passenger get lower price in exchange to flexibility - i.e. low price ticket purchased as first-minute deal will be valid only for one particular train instead of possibility to use any train). Similar exchange don't work with local trains, mostly because railways are not interested in such a sacrifice from a passenger in case of local trains. In case of long-distance trains - binding passenger to particular train helps to predict congestion of different trains more accurately and sometimes allowe either equalize unevenness or cut number of cars in less loaded services, in both cases - it help railway to use rolling stock more efficiently. In case of local trains it's anyway wouldn't work for railway, so first minute deals on such conditions for local trains are normally not proposed. There can be other deals for local trains - local passes and so on, but all them can be purchased on day of departure.
In fact I know only 5 types of minor exclusions from this pattern - it's 5 cases when early purchase may help to cut expenses of travel solely on local trains:

1. in Languedoc-Rousillon region in France - there is exotic proposal - first-minute deal for local trains (price in first minute deal is only 1 EUR). Works for passenger exactly same as first minute deal for long-distance train, same limitation - non-refundable ticket valid only for choosen train. Purchasable not on French Railways website, but on because it's not deal of SNCF, but the initiative of regional authorities.
You can cover huge distance for example from Avignon to Spain border (Cerbere) or to Carcassone in only in few EUR. Tickets are commenced for sale in 1 month departure. In other parts of France there is no first minute deals for TERs.

2. in Switzerland and Austria - train type doesn't matter at all (all tickets for trains are always equally valid for trains of all types, from local to high-speed and price difference for trains of different types never exist).
Instead of it - important thing is if passenger travel within single transport union, or travel doesn't fit in single transport union. But the pattern you formulated works here too, but in abit other way. If you travel within one transport union - no matter by local train, IC or even by high-speed train  - it works like "by local train" in other countries - the lower tariff apply (it's not tariff of OeBB or SBB, it's tarif of transport union) but no first minute deals (so no possibility to get lower price if you buy in advance). While higher full price - it's railway tariff  - but with available significantly lower first-minute deals - exist only if you travel doesn't fit into boundaries of single transport unions (i.e. it works like travel by long-distance train in outher countries). Transport unions are very common in Germany too but unlike Austria and Switzerland - in Germany - transport union tickets are valid only for local trains.

3. The railway passes usually are not a subject of first mintue deals. But Swiss Railways introduced recently the exclusion - the Spartageskarte (i.e. day pass for whole Switzerland, which are available in limited quantity as first-minute deal). This proposal may be useful for person who plan to use solely local trains too.

4. in Belgium and Netherlands - division between "more pricey trains with first minute deals" and "equally cheaper moderately priced trains without first minute deals" located in other place, comparing to other countries. It's not between local vs long-distance like in many other countries but between high-speed vs non-highspeed (local and long-distance, including IC). Travel by all non-high-speed trains (from local to IC) in Belgium and Netherland have the same price and work like local trains in other countries (moderate prices, but no first minute deals) while higher prices but with available first mintued deals - exist only for high-speed trains.

5. sometimes it's possible to utilize first minute deals "for long-distance trains" for travel solely on local trains. Most usable are first minute deals fo German Railways, but sometimes works with first minute deals of other countries (Austrian, sometimes the best choice is first minute deal of Czech Railways even when you don't travel to/from Czech Republic, Czech first minute deals sometimes is profitable if you travel only in Germany or between Germany and Bruxelles for example). It works with first minute deals of those countries, where conditions imply that "travel by long distance trains" may include also supplying sections by local trains. Despite it's implied that "main leg" in such case shold be by long-distance trains and local trains provide only shortish suppying section of journes, but there is no official defitintion what is "main leg" and which is "shortish" enough, so at present - the combination of long-distance trains and local trains with any ratio of traveled distance by different train types is valid. As result -  the first minute ticket for train combination where passenger for example cover 30 km by long distance trains and then 300 km by local trains - still covered by first minute deals "for long-distance trains", such tickets are purchasable and valid and restrictions of lower price (validity on only particular train) apply only on those dummy 30 km section, while 300 km section passenger may take any local train,i.e. you enjoy from flexibility on this section. But refund conditions are same like in first minute deals though.

I assume I can buy Timisoara to Budapest from MAV website as well?
be careful.
International tickets from MAV website - are with mandatory exchange to paper ticket in MAV ticket machine. No way to exchange this code from MAV website to paper ticket in Timisoara.
So you shouldn't buy ticket Timisoara - Budapest if you don't have physical possibility to collect your ticket in Hungary before you start your trip.

I was wondering when I can book the Ukrainian trains?
International trains from EU to Ukraine or back (including IC+ Przemysl - Kyiv) - in 60 days in advance

Most of long distance trains (except IC+, 8xx and 701/702 Lviv - Chernivtsi) - in 45 days in advance (domesic and international to exUSSR countries)

Domestic IC+ trains - in 30 days in advance.

8xx trains and train 701/702 Lviv - Chernivtsi - in 10 days in advance.
And does buying Bratislava to Chop (special cross border fare) save any money compared to Bratislava to Cierna nad Tisou + buy ticket at station to Chop?
If you compare prices of ticket, purchased in Slovakia before departure in ticket counter - international ticket Bratislava - Chop will cost abit cheaper (23.1 EUR) than separately purchased Bratislava - Cierna (21.84 EUR) + Cierna - Chop (2 EUR) BUT:
1. Even if you hadn't managed to buy whatever in advance - you always may get 5% discount for domestic ticket by purchasing ticket via website instead of ticket counter, even before departure. And after applying this discount - separate tickets Bratislava - Cierna (from internet) and Cierna - Chop will cost cheaper than 23,1 EUR of direct Bratislava - Chop ticket. And no way to get similar discount for international ticket Bratislava - Chop or Cierna - Chop, they are not purchasable in internet.
2. Also if you manage to buy domestic ticket for main leg (Bratislava - Kosice) in Slovakia in advance - you can save more significant amount by utilizing special first-minute prices (i.e. for example first-minute prices of ticket+reservation for overnight train on Bratislava - Kosice section may cost 14,9/17/19 EUR for seat/6-bed couchette/4 bed-couchette or if you prefer travel during daytime - 15,9 EUR for ticket+seat reservation for daytime IC train)

P.S. Will leave a note for other readers who think about travel in reverse direction - it doesn't work in opposite direction. Prices are not symmetrical. In Ukraine - ticket Ukraine - Slovakia are issued by international tariff with 50% discount both on UZ and ZSSK part, while in Slovakia - tickets Slovakia - Ukraine are issued with Slovak part caluclated by domestic tariff, which is abit cheaper than intenrnational with 50% discount. So for those who travel from Chop to Slovakia - it's always more profitable to buy separately ticket Chop - Cierna (it costs 2,4 EUR, not 2 EUR as Cierna - Chop in Slovakia) in Chop and Cierna - destination from Slovak railways.

I figure I'll just print it out (like I have in the past with buses like LuxExpress in the Baltics) and just hand that to the driver.
Yes. But unfortunately you cannot book online from the link, I've gave to you (hidden English version, which I've managed to find). Only from Ukrainian/Russian version online purchase work. If you start online purchase from this "hidden" English version - you'll got error on last step, I've already checked.
  Yes the bigger buses is what I would want.  Been hearing that for the 5 hour trip from Chișinău to Odesa that most are the mini buses.  Not looking forward to that...
in this case you anyway have choice between uncomfortable mean of transportation.
Train Chisinau - Odessa is not good too. Additionally to other drawbacks like operation only few times per week and going via Transnistria. All cars except one have wooden benches:
only one of cars in this train have semi-soft seats
but anyway it's the same bad composition, which in domestic trains within Ukraine is considered to be the 3rd class, i.e very few space between rows and very few space in width.

Is the 6am bus for 475 UAH the one you were talking about with the nicest bus since it's a bit more expensive?
yes, it's one of them.

you can click on the the price and see seat chart. Even if you have doubts - you can ensure which bus model is used by deducing it from chart.

As you can see 6:00, 16:30 and 18:35 - have 28 seat bus (it's not tiny bus, it's the standard size 12 m bus) which is very easy to recognize by 1+2 seat locations instead of 2+2 While on other departures, where price is 315 UAH - there is usual 46-seat bus.

Also you may note, that in there are single seats on left bus side, they are tend to sold-out quicker than seats which form pairs, on right side

Also you can click on (i) Details and see list of sheduled intemediate stops. Convenient bus - have intermediate stops, so they cannot overcome whole distance faster than by timetable, because they anyway are not allowed to depart earlier than scheduled from the intermediate stops, so they can "win" no more than ~20 min, between Uman and Kyiv. While the 6:00, 16:30 and 18:35  - don't have scheduled intermediate stops at all, that allows them arrive to Kyiv in a hour (or even more) before sheduled time of arrival.

ha-ha, I've managed to cheat a little bit and force the autolux website to show departure selection in english, look

As you can see - I've choosen today the departure in 2 days and as you can see - only 11 seats (of 28) left.

Oh, I see.
After last change of design of website - English language not available anymore for Autolux website, while in the past it worked.
So sad.

Found the buses from Chișinău to Odesa (, though why do only the later buses in the day state Palanca?
in fact palanca mentioned after dash in destination point (for example ODESA/PALANCA(GA)) - is optional.
If destination point don't contain this /PALANCA it doesn't mean bus doesn't go via Palanca.
Simply one bus carrier insisted their departure should be listed with explicit mentioning of going via Palance, other bus carrier didn't this and bus station simply list Odessa.

I know you stated most buses will avoid Transnistria (though I will have already visited there on the trip), just wasn't sure if these buses go through there or not?  Doesn't really say anything on the website.

it's wrong impression. Most of buses go via Palanca. Most of those, which are listed as simply to odessa and those where explicitly written via Palanca or via Tudora (it's the same way).
With present stupid design of website you can ensure the bus you like really go via Palanca only by making separate seach to Palanca
and findining in results all buses which you've seen in search result to Odessa. As you can see - almost all buses are here - morning, daytime and evening.
Does that just means there's an official stop there while the early buses in the day just drive through Palanca and not stop?
It means only website could be better. It so stupid that their database "knows" intermediate stops, but don't allow to see them by clicking the departure.
but yes, the problem that intermediate point Vama Palanca is listed in one bus departure and missed in other, despite both go via Palanca - is possible too.
you can also try MAIACHI AS, STEFAN-VODA, STAROCAZ+, CAUSENI. If at last one of those intermediate point is present in bus route and then bus reaches Odessa - bus definitely bypasses Transnistria.
  As for Odesa-Kyiv, found I can book the train 2 weeks in advance
well, 1st class is not a big problem, Ukrainians almost don't buy it while seat of 2nd class are available, because find it too pricey. Only when 2nd class is gone - seats in 1st class start to sold-out quickly.

and that the first class will get me to Kyiv at a decent time in the day and only seems to be 1/2 shorter than the bus (unless like mentioned the buses drive faster in the day than the time stated).
Let me explain once more, may be it's will be more clear this way.

Daytime train takes 7 hours.

Convenient buses (the most of buses, I don't reccomend to use them) - have official travel time varying from 7:00 (and can be up to 8 hours), de-facto travel takes usually ~6:45. Comfort level - definitely worse than 2nd class in train. Try to avoid them if there is better option.

But there are few the fastest and more comfortable buses (not all Autolux and Gunsel ones, but only very few particular ones - the 6:00, 16:00 and 18:35 Autolux and 5:45 and 17:15 Gunsel) - have listed travel time 6:30, de-facto travel time will be ~5-5,5 hours. The bus which used for this departures provide higher level of comfort than normal bus, for example here is one type of coaches which used on such departures of Autolux
there is only 28 seats (instead of standar 45) in 12-meter bus, seats stand 2+1 instead of 2+2 and more space between rows. Comfort level definitely better than 2nd class of train.
Those few particular bus departures (5 per day in current timetable) - are the only buses I've proposed you to think about.
  Might be more comfortable on the train as first class opposed to the bus...
But of course, in case of comparsion with 1st class in train - bus is worse, even such better one. In train there is more space. Rolling stock used for daytime train Odessa - Kyiv have 3,5 meters wide carbodies and in 1st class there is 2+2 seats. Definitely 2+2 seats in 3,5 meter wide car-body provide more space than 2+1 seat in 2,5 meter-wide bus.

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